Turmeric farming guide for maximum yield of turmeric

Turmeric Farming

Expectation from turmeric farming

Expected turmeric yield per acre

120-150  Quintal per acre

Turmeric crop duration

250-270 Days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)

77,000

Expected Income (Rs)

2,75,000

Favorable climate for turmeric cultivation

Ideal climate for turmeric crop

  • Requires high rainfall and moist climate during early growth stages.

Best temperature for turmeric

  • Temperature – 25-35°C

Turmeric crop water requirements

  • Water requirement – Equivalent to a rainfall of 1500 mm.

Favorable soil for turmeric farming

Soil type

  • Sandy to Clay loam soils with good water holding capacity.
  • Land with good slope should be selected to avoid water logging.
  • Turmeric is very sensitive to water logging. 

Soil pH

  • Required range – 4.5- 7.5
  • If pH is < 4.5 add Lime
  • If pH is > 7.5 add Gypsum 
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Turmeric varieties: Characteristics, yield and duration

Selam
Duration
270 Days
Special Characteristic
Most commonly used variety. The appearance and size is attractive. It has low curcumin content (2-3%).
Season
Sowing in June
Yield (Fresh rhizomes) (tons/acre)
12
Pragati
Duration
180 Days
Special Characteristic
This is a dwarf variety. The plant height does not go above 4 ft. It is a six month variety with high curcumin content (5%) Moderately resistant to root knot nematode.
Season
Sowing in June
Yield (Fresh rhizomes) (tons/acre)
12-15
Pratibha
Duration
270 Days
Special Characteristic
This is a high yielding variety. The plan height can go upto 5 ft. It has high curcumin content (6%).
Season
Sowing in June
Yield (Fresh rhizomes) (tons/acre)
15-20

Turmeric seed rate

Seed Rate
Varieties
800 kg/acre. For sowing, both the mother rhizomes and fingers are used. To save on seed cost, fingers can be cut into 4 - 5 cm long pieces, and the mother rhizomes are planted as such or split into two; each having at least one Sprout bud.

Seed treatment for turmeric farming

  • Treat the seeds with Copper oxychloride @ 2 gram + Dimethoate 2 ml per lit water.
  • Likewise 200 lit water  in big container is enough for 800 kg seeds.
  • Dip the seeds in this solution for at least 15-20 min.

Turmeric farming land preparation

Land Preparation

  1. Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  2. Mix the following in field  and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 
    1. FYM – 4 tons
    2. Composting Bacteria – 3 kg
  3. Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth.

Bed Preparation

  1. Bed preparation- Prepare flat beds of 1 meter width, 30 cm height with spacing of 50 cm between beds.
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Spacing and plant population for sowing turmeric

Varities
Row to Row
1.6 ft
Plant to Plant
0.9 ft
Plant Population
30,555

Sowing of turmeric: Sowing time and method

  • Sowing time:15th May – 1st week of June
  • Follow two row planting i.e. Prepare small pits on flat beds at 30 cm distance and place seed rhizomes in pits. Then cover with soil.
 

Nutrient management in turmeric farming

  • Total requirement- 80:40:40 kg NPK per acre. 
  • At sowing apply – 

                Single Super Phosphate- 246 kg

                Murate of Potash- 66 kg

  • 45 Days after sowing –

                Urea- 86 Kg

  • 75 Days after sowing –

               Urea- 86 Kg

Flood and drip irrigation of turmeric farm

  • Flood – At 8 to 10 days interval (based on rainfall)
  • Drip – Alternate day (Based on rainfall)

Intercultural operations for turmeric farming

  • Gap filling- After 20 days put seeds in gaps where germination is not done.
  • Mulching– The crop is to be mulched immediately after planting with green leaves @ 4.5  t/acre.

Weed management in turmeric

3 Days after sowing
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine 50 WP OR Pendimethalin
Herbicide quantity
200 gm per acre OR 600 ml per acre
45 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Pendimethalin
Herbicide quantity
600 ml per acre

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Pest and diseases of turmeric: Symptoms and Management

Rhizome Rot of Turmeric

rhizome rot disease in turmeric farmingrhizome rot disease in turmeric farming
Symptoms
Decay of rhizomes
Crop Input Quantity
Metalaxyl
250.0 gram per acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water

White Grub in Turmeric

white grub pest in turmeric plants
Symptoms
Plant withers and patchy crop growth, Plants turn pale, leaves and branches drop down.
Crop Input Quantity
Carbofuran
5 kg per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix and spread over soil.

Turmeric Shoot Borer

Shoot borer
Symptoms
Bore-hole on the Pseudo-stem with exuding frass, Withering of central shoot.
Crop Input Quantity
Neem oil (Or) Lambada -cyhalothrin
600 ml per acre (or) 200 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Rhizome Scale of Turmeric

Rhizome scale
Symptoms
Rhizome become shrivelled and desiccated.
Crop Input Quantity
Dimethoate
250 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and apply via drip.

Turmeric Leaf Blotch

leaf blotch disease in turmeric farming
Symptoms
Irregular brown spots on either side of the leaves, Yellowing of leaves, Scorched appearance in severe cases.
Crop Input Quantity
Azoxystrobin + Difenconazole
300 ml per acre
Propiconazole
200 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Leaf Roller

leaf roller pest in turmeric
Symptoms
Folding of leaves Presence of larvae inside the folded leaves.
Crop Input Quantity
Lambda-cyhalothrin
200 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Leaf Eating Caterpillar

Leaf eating caterpillar on turmeric plant
Symptoms
Small holes on the leaves Longitudinal cutting of leaves.
Crop Input Quantity
Indoxacarb + Novaluron
250 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Turmeric Leaf Spot

Leaf spot disease and its prevention
Symptoms
Irregular brown spots with white or grey center on the young leaves.
Crop Input Quantity
Mancozeb
200 gram per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Turmeric harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
250 to 270 Days after sowing (Depending on variety)
Harvesting time
January- March
Harvesting
Harvesting with a tractor attached to a turmeric harvester is followed when the raised beds are taken using a tractor.
Note
20 days before harvesting irrigation should be stopped.

Turmeric yield per acre

Yield
Fresh rhizomes
120-150 Quintal per acre
Dry rhizomes
25-30 Quintal per acre

Turmeric farming: Post harvest care

  • Boiling- Boiling is taken up within 3-4 days after harvest. Fingers and bulbs should be boiled separately. Fingers should be boiled upto 45-60 min and bulbs or mother rhizomes for 90 minutes.
  • Drying- The cooked fingers are dried in the sun by spreading in 5-7 cm thick layers on the ground for 10-15 days.
  • Polishing- The appearance is improved by smoothening and polishing the outer surface manually or with machine.

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