Tomato Farming: Complete guide on cultivating tomatoes

Complete information on how to plant and grow tomatoes

Tomato farming

Tomato farming expectations

Expected Harvest

100 quintal/acre

Expected duration of tomato crop

70-110 days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)

91,897

Expected Income (Rs)

1,20,000

Favorable climate for tomato cultivation

Climate

  • Heavy rains, cloudy weather at the time of flowering and fruiting is harmful as it favours dropping of flowers and fruits.
  • The plants cannot withstand frost and high humidity. 
  • High humidity leads to rotting of fruits.
  • Bright sunshine at the time of fruit set helps to develop dark red coloured fruits.

Temperature requirements for tomato farming

  • Temperature below 10°C retards plant development.
  • If temperature goes beyond 33°C, fruit development will be adversely affected.
  • Temperature above 38°C at initial growth stage retard the growth.
  • A temperature ranging from 21-24°C is ideal for tomato.

Water requirements for tomato crop

  • Generally Grown in irrigated areas.
  • To grow high quality tomato, drip with plastic mulching is recommended.
  • Crop requires large amount of water at vegetative stage (upto 30 days).
  • Crop water requirement – equivalent to 600-1500 mm rainfall.

Favorable soil for cultivating tomatoes

Soil type

  •  Loamy soil with good water holding capacity.

Soil pH

  • Required range- 6.0-7.5
  • If pH is < 6.0 add Lime.
  • If pH is > 7.5 add Gypsum.

Tomato nursery bed preparation

Method-1 for nursery preparation

  • For transplanting in 1 acre area, 0.08 acre (3 Guntha) nursery is required.
  • Prepare six beds of size 3 m length X 1 m width X 15 cm height.
  • Sow the seeds 2-3 cm deep in line at 10 cm apart and cover with soil.
  • Water the nursery beds daily twice till germination and once after germination.
  • 4-5 days before transplanting reduce the quantity of water application to the nursery beds to harden the seedlings and one day before transplanting give light irrigation.

Method- 2 for nursery preparation

  • Fill the protrays with Cocopeat @ 1.2 kg per tray. 
  • Sow the treated seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
  • Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts (5 Days).
  • After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside a shade net.

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Tomato nursery duration

  • Duration- 25-30 days
  • Plants are ready for transplanting when leaves become dark green in color and stem become thick.
Seed Rate
Varieties
380-400 gram/acre
Hybrids
140-150 gram/acre

Seed treatment for tomato farming

  • Treat the seeds with·        

    • Imidacloprid – 4 ml

    Instructions – Mix the above quantity in two liters of water for one kg of seeds. Dip the seeds in solution for 10 min & then shade dry for 15 min.·        

    • Mancozeb – 2 gram
    Instructions – Above treated seeds are to be again treated with the Mancozeb 2 gram for 1 kg of seeds.

Land Preparation for planting tomato seedlings

Land Preparation for growing tomatoes

  • Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  • Mix the following in field, and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 
    1. FYM – 2 tons
    2. Composting Bacteria – 3 kg
  • Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth.

Bed Preparation

Prepare raised beds of 120 cm width and 90 cm apart with the help of tractor.

Spacing and plant population for tomato farming

Varities
Row to Row
2.9 ft
Plant to Plant
0.9 ft.
Plant Population
16,858
Hybrid
Row to Row
2.4 ft
Plant to Plant
0.9 ft
Plant Population
20,370

Root Dip Treatment

  • Take 20 liter water in flat container.
  • Mix 40 gram Mancozeb + 40 ml Imidacloprid + 100 gram Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacter.
  • Dip the roots in solution before transplanting.
  • For plants in pro trays – Dip the pro trays in the container for 5 min.

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Transplanting tomato seedlings

  • Transplant the seedlings on the beds 30 cm apart.

Nutrient management for high tomato yield

For Varieties- Total requirement 80:40:40 N:P:K kg per acre. 

  • At sowing apply-
    • Urea- 87 kg

      Single Super Phosphate- 246 kg

      Muriate of Potash- 67 kg

    • 30 Days after transplanting-
    • Urea- 44 kg

    • 50 Days after transplanting-
    • Urea- 44 kg

For Hybrid- Total requirement 120:60:60 N:P:K kg per acre.

  • At sowing apply- 
    • Urea- 130 kg

    • Single Super Phosphate- 375 kg

      Muriate of Potash- 100 kg

    • 30 Days after transplanting-
    • Urea- 65 kg

    • 50 Days after transplanting-
    • Urea- 65 kg

Technique for watering tomatoes

  • Drip – On alternate day
  • Flood – 8-10 days interval  (winter), 6-8 days interval (Summer)
  • Sprinkler should be avoided as under sprinkler irrigation the occurrence of fungal diseases and possibly bacterial canker become a major problem.
  • Excessive watering during the flowering period will increase flower drop and reduce fruit set. 
  • Avoid prolonged water stagnation and long dry period as it causes cracking of fruits.

Intercultural Operations

Weed management in tomato farming

3 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Pendimethalin OR Fluchloralin
400 ml per acre
30 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Oxyfluorfen
100 gm per acre

Growth regulators

  • To improve flowering, spray Triacontanol @ 1.25 ml/L on 20, 40, 60 day after transplanting. 
  • To reduce flower drop and increase fruit setting spray Naphthalene acetic acid 10 ml/L of water on 60 and 90 days after transplanting.

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Tomato plant diseases and pests:
Symptoms and Management

Early blight disease in tomato with symptoms and management
Early blight
Symptoms
Brown-round leaf spots with outer yellow ring on leaves. In severe case leaves turn brown and fall off
Crop Input Quantity
Mancozeb
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Fruit borer disease in tomato with its management and symptoms
Fruit borer
Symptoms
Bore holes on fruit .Young larvae feed on tender foliage, Mature larvae bore circular holes, Thrust only a part of its body into fruit and eat the inner content
Crop Input Quantity
Indoxacarb + Novaluron
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
टमाटर की खेती के रोग - मोझॅक व्हायरस
Mosaic virus
Symptoms
Folding of leaves. Browning and rolling of leaves
Crop Input Quantity
Dimethoate
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
टमाटर का पांढरी भुरी रोग
Powdery mildew
Symptoms
White powdery growth on leaves and stem
Crop Input Quantity
Wettable sulphur
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
टमाटर के रोग एवं उपचार - रसशोषक किडी
Sucking pests
Symptoms
Upward curling of leaves
Crop Input Quantity
Acetamaprid
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
टमाटर की खेती के रोग - मर रोग
Damping off
Symptoms
Emerged seedlings develop a ring near where the tender stem contacts the soil surface, and the seedling collapse
Crop Input Quantity
Metalaxyl
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water
टमाटर के पौधों में रोग - उशिरा येणारा करपा
Late blight
Symptoms
Disease infection cause all foliage to rot, dry out and fall to the ground, stems to dry out and plants to die
Crop Input Quantity
Chlorothalonil
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
टमाटर की बीमारी - पाने खाणारी अळी
Leaf miner
Symptoms
Larvae mines into the leaves, feed on sap and form small brown blotches on the leaf
Crop Input Quantity
Lambda-cyhalothrin
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Harvesting tomatoes

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
70 to 110 Days after transplanting
Number of Harvests
8 to 10
Harvesting Intervals
3 Days

Tomato yield

Yield
Each Harvesting Quantity
10 quintal/acre
Total Harvesting Quantity
100 quintal/acre

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