Sugarcane Farming

Sugarcane Cultivation

Sugarcane farming expectations

Sugarcane Yield per Acre

400-600 Quintal/acre

Expected Duration

330-360 Days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)

60,000

Expected Income (Rs)

1,25,000

Favorable climate for sugarcane farming

Sugarcane climatic conditions

  • ​Hot and moist climate.
  • Warm long day produce plants with more tillers, juice and high sucrose content.

Temperature required for sugarcane

  • Germination stage- 30 to 34°C. 
  • Vegetative growth- 20-30°C.
  • Ripening stage- 12-15°C.
  • Higher temperature like 50°C stops its growth and very low temperature below 20°C slows down its growth.
  • Smut initiation and spread is high at ambient temperatures of 25-30°C. Similarly the spread of red rot disease is high at higher temperatures (37-40°C).

Sugarcane water requirement

  • Water requirement is equivalent to 1800-2200 mm of rainfall.
  • Considering 20% field application losses, 1400-2000 mm is enough under surface irrigation condition.
  • During ripening period high rainfall is not desirable because it leads to poor juice quality, encourages vegetative growth, formation of water shoots and increase in the tissue moisture.

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Favorable soil for sugarcane farming

Sugarcane soil type

  • Wide range of medium to heavy soils like sandy-loam, clay-loam, loam or black cotton laterites, reddish or brown soil.
  • Soil with high contents of organic matter.
  • Water logged soil should be avoided. 
  • Heavy clay soil with proper drainage or light soils with irrigation facilities are also favourable for sugarcane crop. 

Soil pH

  • 6.5-7.5 is desirable.
  • If pH is < 6.5 add Lime.
  • If pH is > 7.5 add Gypsum.

Sugarcane variety : Characteristics, yield, duration

Sugarcane variety co 86032

Co-86032
Duration
280 Days
Special Characteristic
Drought tolerant. Ratoon gives Excellent yield
Season
Drought, Rabi
Yield
1050 Quintal per acre

Sugarcane variety 265

Co M-0265
Duration
540 Days
Special Characteristic
Tolerant to drought and salinity and good ratooner
Season
Rabi
Yield
1500 Quintal per acre

Sugarcane variety C-671

Co C-671
Duration
120 Days
Special Characteristic
Tolerant to drought and salinity and good ratooner
Season
Rabi
Yield
1050 Quintal per acre
Seed Rate
Varieties
25-28 Quintal per acre

Sugarcane seed treatment

  • Treat the seeds with Copper oxychloride @ 2 gram + Dimethoate 2 ml per lit of water.
  • Take 200 lit water in big container for 800 kg seeds.
  • Dip the seeds in this solution for at least 15-20 min.

Land Preparation

Land Preparation

  1. Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  2. Mix all and applythe following in field, and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 

              FYM – 2 tons

             Composting Bacteria – 4 kg

           3. Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth.

Bed Preparation

Bed preparation- Prepare Ridges and furrows at 120 cm apart.

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Sugarcane farming: Spacing and Plant Population

Varities
Row to Row
3.9 ft
Plant to Plant
1.9 ft
Plant Population
5,555

Sowing: Sugarcane planting

  • Cultivation can be done in three seasons.
  • Sugarcane Sowing time: Pre seasonal: 15 Oct-30 Nov, Adsali: 15 july-15 August, Suru: 15 Dec- 15 Feb 
  • The two budded setts are planted in the furrow at 60 cm apart. Put setts in soil, cover it with soil by keeping buds open.

Nutrient management in sugarcane farming

  • Total Nutrient Requirement: 120:56:56 N:P:K kg/acre. 
  • 15 Days after planting

                 Urea- 130 kg

                Single super phosphate 172 kg

                Muriate of potash- 48 kg

  • 130 Days after planting

               Urea- 130 kg

               Single super phosphate- 172 kg

               Muriate of potash- 48 kg

Irrigation for sugarcane crop

  • Flood- At 6-8 days interval

Intercultural Operations in sugarcane farming

  1. Gap filling- After 30 days put sprouted setts in gaps where germination is not done.
  2. Earthing-up- Partial earthing-up– 45 Days after planting. In this, little amount of soil from either side of the furrow is taken and placed around the base of the shoots.
  3. Full earthing-up- 120 Days after planting. In this, the soil from the ridge in between is fully removed and placed near the cane on either side.

Weed Management

20 days before planting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Glyphosate (600 ml/acre)
3 Days after planting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine 50WP (600 gram/acre) OR Metribuzin (400 gram/acre)
21 Days after planting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
2,4-D (1 kg/acre)

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Sugarcane diseases and pest management

Sugarcane white grub

White grub pest in sugarcane
Symptoms
Drying of entire crown Affected canes come off easily when pulled Affected canes falls down in the field.
Crop Input Quantity
Phorate
10 kg per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix and spread over soil.

Sugarcane wooly aphid

Woolly aphid attack on sugarcane
Symptoms
White nymphs and adults on the under surface of leaf Yellowing and drying of leaves from the tip along the margins Heavy secretion of honey dew leads to development of sooty mold.
Crop Input Quantity
Dimethoate
300 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Sugarcane Rust

Rust disease in sugarcane
Symptoms
Earliest symptoms-small, elongated yellowish spots on both sides of leaves. These spots increase in size and turn red-brown to brown in color.
Crop Input Quantity
Propiconazole
600 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Sugarcane Internode Borer

Internode borer pest in sugarcane farming
Symptoms
Internodes constricted and shortened, with a number of boreholes. Sticky materials are present on the affected portion.
Crop Input Quantity
Fipronil
7 kg per acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water.

Grassy Shoot of Sugarcane

Grassy root disease in sugarcane farming
Symptoms
Premature & excessive tillering, Stunted growth with bushy appearance, Transmitted by Aphids.
Crop Input Quantity
Dimethoate
300 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Wilt of Sugarcane

Wilt disease in sugarcane cultivation
Symptoms
Yellowing and drying of foliage, shrinkage/withering of canes, A characteristic disagreeable odour is also associated with this disease due to rotting.
Crop Input Quantity
Carbendazim
600 gram per acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water.

Red rot of sugarcane

red rot disease in sugarcane farming
Symptoms
Dead heart which can be easily pulled out, Offensive odour due to stem rotting, Bore holes at the base of the shoot.
Crop Input Quantity
Carbendazim
400 gram per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Termite

Prevention of termite attack in sugarcane farming
Symptoms
The infected plants can be easily pulled out due to the rotting of the roots
Crop Input Quantity
Carbofuran
5 kg per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix and spread over soil.

Sugarcane harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
330 to 360 Days after planting.
Harvesting method
Harvesting is done by cutting the canes at ground level

Yield per acre for sugarcane farming

Yield
Total Harvesting Quantity
400-600 Quintal/acre

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