Red Chilli

red chilli

Expectation

Expected Harvest

15-20 quintal/acre

Expected Duration

200-220 days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)
74,977
Expected Income (Rs)

1,75,000

Favourable Climate

Climate
  • Chili pepper is better adapted to hot weather than is sweet pepper, 
  • Peppers are photoperiod-insensitive (daylength does not affect flowering or fruit set).
Temperature
  • Optimum day temperatures for chili pepper growth range from 20 to 30°C
  • It does not set fruit well when night temperatures are greater than 24°C. 
  • When the temperature falls below 15°C or exceeds 32°C for extended periods, growth and yield are usually reduced.
Crop Water Requirements
  • Generally grown in irrigated areas.
  • Flowering and fruit development in chilli are the most critical stages when water must be available. 
  • Water requirement – Equivalent to 800-1200 mm of rainfall

Favourable Soil

Type
  • Chili pepper grows best in loam or silt loam soil with good water-holding capacity, but can grow on many soil types, as long as the soil is well drained.
pH
  • Required range- Soil pH should be between 5.5 and 6.8.
  • Strongly acid and alkaline soils are not suitable for growing Chilli.
  • If pH is <5.5 add Lime
  • If pH is >6.8 add Gypsum

Planting Material

Ellachipur Sanam-S4 type
Duration
150-200 Days
Special Characteristic
Grown in Amaravathi District of Maharashtra. Reddish in colour and very hot. Capsaicine-0.2%
Season
Kharif
Yield
2-2.5 Quintal/acre
Guntur Sannam -S4 type
Duration
200 Days
Special Characteristic
Grown in Guntur,Warangal,Khammam Districts of Andhra Pradesh. Skin thick,hot and red. Capsaicine-0.226%
Season
Kharif
Yield
25 Quintal/acre
Byadagi (Kaddi)
Duration
150 Days
Special Characteristic
Grown in Dharwad Karnataka. Red in colour with less pungency or without pungency. Harvesting season-January to May
Season
Kharif
Yield
8-10 Quintal/acre
Madhya pradesh G.T.Sannam
Duration
150-200 Days
Special Characteristic
Grown in Indore, Malkapur Chikli and Elachpur areas of Madhya Pradesh. Red in colour and pungent Harvesting season-January to March
Season
Kharif
Yield
5-7 Quintal/acre

Nursery Preparation

Nursery Preparation

Method- 1

  • For transplanting in 1 acre area, 0.08 acre (3 Guntha) nursery is required.
  • Prepare six beds of size 7.5 m length X 1.2 m width X 10 cm height.
  • Sow the seeds in line at 7.5cm apart and cover with soil.
  • Water the nursery beds daily twice till germination and once after germination.
  • Ten days before transplanting reduce the quantity of water application to the nursery beds to harden the seedlings.
  • After 3 days of seed germination, drench the seedbed with Ridomil @ 20 gram. in 10 lit of water, to protect the seedlings from damping-off disease.
  • Spray 19:19:19 @ 5 gram + Thiamethoxam @ 0.25 gram per lit water at 25 days after sowing.

Method- 2

  • Fill the protrays with Cocopeat @ 1.2 kg Cocopeat per tray. 
  • Sow the treated seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
  • Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts (5 Days).
  • After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside a shade net.
Nursery Duration
  • Duration- 35 days 
  • Plants are ready for transplanting when leaves become dark green in color and stem become thick
Seed Rate
Varieties
380- 400 g seeds for transplanting 1 acre area

Seed Treatment

Treat the seeds with 

  • Imidacloprid – 4 ml

Instructions – Mix the above quantity in two liters of water for one kg of seeds. Deep the seeds in solution for 10 min & then shade dry for 15 min.

  • Carbendazim – 2 gram 

Instructions – Treated seeds are to be again treated with the Carbendazim 2 gram for 1 kg of seeds. Apply it on seed by rubbing it on seed surface.

Land Preparation

Land Preparation
  1. Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  2. Mix the following in field, and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 
    1. FYM – 2 tons
    2. Composting Bacteria – 3kg
  3. Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth
Bed Preparation
  1. Bed preparation- Prepare ridges and furrows 75 cm or 60 cm apart with the help of tractor.

Spacing and Plant Population

Varities
Row to Row
1.9 ft
Plant to Plant
0.9 ft
Plant Population
22,220
Hybrid
Row to Row
1.5 ft
Plant to Plant
1.5 ft
Plant Population
19,750

Root Dip Treatment

  • Take 20 liter water in flat container.
  • Mix 40 gram Carbendazim + 40 ml Imidacloprid.
  • Dip the roots in solution for 5 minutes before transplanting.
  • For plants in pro trays – Dip the pro trays in container for 5 min.

Transplanting

  • Transplant the seedlings on the ridges 60 cm apart. 

Nutrient Management

  • 40:20:20 kg NPK per acre 
  • At sowing apply (per acre)- Urea – 44 kg, SSP – 122 kg, MoP – 34 kg
  • 30 Days after transplantation – 22 kg Urea
  • 45 Days after transplantation – 22 kg Urea

Irrigation

  • Drip – On alternate day
  • Flood – Once in a week (based on rainfall)
  • Summer season- 5-6 days interval
  • After every harvesting of chilli one irrigation should be provided. If overhead irrigation must be used, apply early in the day so that leaves are dry before nightfall.

Intercultural Operations

  • Use rice straw mulch 2 tons per acre. Cover plastic mulch with straw to reduce temperature in the root zone.
  • Staking- Plants may be staked to prevent lodging, particularly when they have a heavy load of fruits. Each plant is individually staked before flowering stage
  • 30-40 days after sowing thinning & gap filling should be done.

Weed Management

3 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine 50WP (400 ml per acre) OR Pendimethalin (100 gram per acre)
30 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Oxyfluorfen (100 ml per acre)

*(All herbicides are selective, can be sprayed at mentioned stage).

Note – Add sticker in all herbicides for better results.

Growth Regulators

  • To improve flowering spray Triacontanol @ 1.25 ml per lit water on 20, 40, 60 days after transplanting. 
  • To reduce flower drop and increase fruit setting spray Naphthalic acetic acid 2 ml per liter water on 60 and 90 days after transplanting.

Pest and Disease Management

Soil borne diseases
Symptoms
Seedlings quickly withers and dries Poor germination or in extreme cases germination ceased The seedlings topple over or collapse Attack young seedlings as well as grown up plants
Crop Input Quantity
Trichoderma viride
40 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Dip the roots in water before transplanting
Sucking pests
Symptoms
Folding of leaves Silvery patches on leaves Upward curling of leaves Small insects aggregated on leaves, stem
Crop Input Quantity
Thiamethoxam
100 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Dieback
Symptoms
Progressive yellowing and dieback from the tips of leaves Rotting and drying of fruit The infected tissue then turns brown and dies
Crop Input Quantity
Mancozeb
400 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Fusarium Wilt
Symptoms
Iinitial slight yellowing of the foliage and wilting of the upper leaves then wilting of the plant and upward and inward rolling of the leaves The leaves turn yellow and die
Crop Input Quantity
Carbendazim
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water
Powdery mildew
Symptoms
Infected leaves have white to light grey, powdery patches Greyish powdery growth occurs on the under as well as on the upper surface of the leaf
Crop Input Quantity
Wettable sulphur
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Damping off
Symptoms
The infected part of seedling looks much thinner
Crop Input Quantity
Metalaxyl
250 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water
Fruit borer of chilli
Fruit borer
Symptoms
Pheromone in traps will attract and kill the insect Bore holes on fruit Bore holes seen on shoots and fruits plugged with excreta
Crop Input Quantity
Thiamethoxam + Lambda cyhalothrin
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
90-120 days after transplanting
Number of Harvests
5 to 6
Harvesting Intervals
10 Days

Yield

Yield
Each Harvesting Quantity
1.5-2 quintal per acre (depending on variety)(South)
Total Harvesting Quantity
15-20 quintal/acre

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