Mango

mango

Expectation

Expected Harvest
8000 fruits /acre (Alphanso)
Expected Duration

30-40 Years

Expected Expenditure (Rs)

37,447

Expected Income (Rs)

1,60,000

Favourable Climate

Climate
  • Mango cannot stand severe frost, especially when the tree is young.
  • Dry weather before blossoming is good for profuse flowering. 
  • Rain during flowering is detrimental to the crop as it interferes with pollination. However, rain during fruit development is good but heavy rains cause damage to ripening fruits.
  • Strong winds and cyclones during fruiting season cause excessive fruit drop.
Temperature
  • The ideal temperature range for mango is 24-30 °C during the growing season, along with high humidity. 
  • High temperature by itself is not so injurious to mango, but in combination with low humidity and high winds, it affects the tree adversely.
  • Average minimum temperature during the winter should preferably be above 5°C.
  • Low temperatures when the trees are in full bloom, can cause small fruits which turns yellow. Large numbers of these fruit result in a reduction in yield.
  • Mango trees will grow and produce well in areas with very high temperatures (45 °C). However, when the maximum temperature exceeds 46 °C vegetative growth ceases, especially if it is accompanied by low humidity.     
Crop Water Requirements
  • Crop required water equivalent to 900-1100 mm of rainfall.

Favourable Soil

Type
  • The loamy, alluvial, well-drained, aerated and deep soils (2-2.5 m) rich in organic matter is ideal for mango cultivation. 
  • It can be grown even on lighter soils when properly manured. 
  • Alkaline and saline soils should be avoided. 
  • Mango cannot tolerate high soil salt content 
pH
  • Required range – 5.5-7.5
  • If pH is <5.5 add Lime
  • If pH is >7.5 add Gypsum 

Planting Material

Alphonso (Hapus)
Duration
Regular bearing
Special Characteristic
Excellent taste, color and durability, Early fruits in the season, better for export, alternate bearing, fruit fragrance remains even after the process, susceptible to spongy tissue
Yield
150-250 fruits/tree
Ratna
Duration
Regular bearing
Special Characteristic
Every year bearing, big fruits,
Yield
250-300 fruits/tree
Sindhu
Duration
Regular bearing
Special Characteristic
More pulp, every year bearing, attractive red tint on fruit surface, medium size fruits, free from spongy tissue
Yield
200-250 fruits/tree
Kesar
Duration
Regular bearing
Special Characteristic
High yielder, more yield than alphonso, good for table purpose
Yield
400-500 fruits/tree
Pairi
Duration
Alternate bearing
Special Characteristic
Good for fruit juice, poor shelf life, alternate bearer
Yield
250-300 fruits/tree
Suvarna
Duration
Regular bearing
Special Characteristic
Bears fruits every year, similar size fruits, good for table purpose, early maturing variety, free from spongy tissue
Yield
250 fruits/tree

Land Preparation

Land Preparation
  • Clean the field to remove debris & trash of previous crop
  • Before starting the rain in the month of May dig the Pit of size 1 x 1 x 1 meter 
  • Mix 2 tons FYM and 3 kg Composting bacteria and put this equally in each pit (5 kg per pit).

Spacing and Plant Population

Heavy soil
Row to Row
32 ft
Plant to Plant
32 ft
Plant Population
42
Light soil
Row to Row
26 ft
Plant to Plant
26 ft
Plant Population
65
Amrapali High Density Planting
Row to Row
16 ft
Plant to Plant
16 ft
Plant Population
171

Root Dip Treatment

  • Take 30 liter water in flat container.
  • Mix 60 gram Carbendazim + 60 ml Imidacloprid. 
  • Dip the roots in solution before planting.

Planting

  • Mango can be propagated from seed or propagated vegetatively.
  • Plants are generally propagated vegetatively by using several techniques like grafting
  • With the commencement of monsoon, plant the ready graft in the pit.
  • Remove the plastic bag before transplanting to main field (pit)
  • Chemical treatment: To protect the sedling from termites mix 100 gram 2% Methyl parathion or 10% carbaryl powder in pit at the time of transplanting.
  • Generally 40 seedlings are required for 1 acre area. (it varies according to planting distance.)

 

Planting time: June to September

Nutrient Management

  • 1st year- FYM- 1 kg + 120:150:50 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 260 gm, Single super phosphate- 920 gm, Murate of Potash- 85 gm
  • 2nd year- FYM-2 kg + 240:300:100 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 520 gm,Single super phosphate- 1845 gm, Murate of Potash- 167 gm
  • 3rd year- FYM- 3 kg + 360:450:150 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 780 gm, Single super phosphate- 2767 gm, Murate of Potash- 250 gm
  • 4th year- FYM- 4 Kg + 480:600:200 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 1040bgm, Single super phosphate- 3690 gm, Murate of Potash- 334 gm
  • 5th year- FYM-5 kg + 600:750:250 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 1300 gm, Single super phosphate- 4612 gm, Murate of Potash- 418 gm
  • 6th year- FYM- 6 kg + 720:900:300 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 1560 gm, Single super phosphate- 5535 gm, Murate of Potash- 500 gm
  • 7th year- FYM- 7 kg + 840:1050:359 gram/plant, Urea- 1830 gm, Single super phosphate- 6460 gm,Murate of Potash- 600 gm
  • 8th year- FYM- 8 kg + 960:1200:400 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 2085 gm, Single super phosphate- 7380 gm, Murate of Potash- 668 gm
  • 9th year- FYM- 9 kg + 1080:1350:450 gram NPK/plant, Urea- 2345 gm, Single super phosphate- 8300 gm, Murate of Potash- 750 gm
  • 10 years & above- FYM-10 kg + 1200:1500:500 gram NPK/tree, Urea- 2600 gm, Single super phosphate- 9225 gm, Murate of Potash- 835 gm


Note: Above total FYM & half dose of NPK should be applied with the commencement of rain & remaining half dose of NPK will be applied in September-October.

Irrigation

 

1 year

Irrigated at an interval of 2-3 days during dry season.

2-5 year

Irrigation interval- 4-5 days .

5-8 years/ fruit set to maturity

Irrigated after every 10-15 days

Full bearing stage

2-3 irrigations after fruit set.

Intercultural Operations

  • In Summer apply Bordeaux paste to the stem of the plant to protect against excess heat.
  • Remove weeds before fertilizer application

Weed Management

10 Days before planting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Glyphosate (500 ml per acre)
30 Days after planting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Paraquat (500 gram per acre) OR Atrazine (400 gram per acre)

Repeat Atrazine spray when needed in between plants

Growth Regulators

  • NAA @ 20 ppm is sprayed at flowering to increase the fruit retention.
  • During February 0.5% Urea (5 g/lit.) or 1% Potassium Nitrate (10g/lit.) may be sprayed to induce flowering, if trees do not flower by that time. 
  • Spraying of 2% KNO3 at mustard size will increase the fruit set and retention of fruits.
  • Application of Paclobutrazol @ 10 g per tree for non-bearing trees during the first fortnight of September will induce flowering and fruit set yield during off years.

Pest and Disease Management

Black tip and Internal Necrosis
Symptoms
Tip area of the immature fruit becomes black and hard
Crop Input Quantity
Borax
300 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Fruit drop
Symptoms
Premature fruit drop
Crop Input Quantity
Napthalene Acetic acid
300 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Fusarium wilt and Dieback
Symptoms
Flower malformation, Blackening of flower
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
300 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Dieback
Symptoms
Characterized by drying back of twigs from top downwards followed by drying of leaves particularly in older trees
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
450 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Red rust
Symptoms
Rusty spots appear on leaves, initially as circular, slightly elevated, comes together to form irregular spots
Crop Input Quantity
Bordeaux mixture
300 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Anthracnose
Symptoms
Irregular brown spots on leaf surface Tips of young branches start drying from tip Black spots appear on panicle, flowers and fruits in storage
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
300 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Powdery mildew
Symptoms
White powdery growth on leaves and stem The affected flowers do not open and in most cases shed prematurely
Crop Input Quantity
Wettable sulphur
300 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Thrips
Symptoms
The maggots bore into the shoot of young plants and as a result the central shoot dries up Nymphs and adults scratch the tissues and suck the cell sap
Crop Input Quantity
Thiamethoxam
300 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Leaf webber
Symptoms
Initially caterpillars feed on leaf surface gregariously by scrapping/Later they make web of tender shoots and leaves together and feed within
Crop Input Quantity
Quinalphos
300 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Fruit fly
Symptoms
Pheromone in traps will attract and kill the insect Maggots feed on the internal content of the fruit which results in rotting of such fruits
Crop Input Quantity
Pheromone traps
5 traps Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Install in the field
Mango Mealy bugs
Symptoms
Excretes sticky substance which facilitates the development of sooty mould The nymphs climb on the trees and settle on inflorescence causing flower drop and affecting fruit set
Crop Input Quantity
Chloropyriphos
25 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in the ring around pits OR Mix in water and spray
Mango Hopper
Symptoms
Heavy puncturing and continuous draining of sap causes curling and drying of infested tissue
Crop Input Quantity
Dimethoate
450 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting stage
Mango fruit is harvested at the mature-green stage.
Harvesting time
April-June
Harvesting will start
after 5 years (Depending on variety).
Productive life of Mango tree
30-40 years

Yield

Yield
5-8 year Plant
200-300 fruits/tree
9 year & above Plant
300-500 fruit/tree

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