Maize Crop: Advance technique of maize cultivation

Maize Crop

Expectation from farming of maize crop

Expected yield of maize per acre

28-40 Quintal/acre

Expected maize crop duration

100-120 days after sowing

Expected expenditure (Rs) in farming

26,017

Expected Income (Rs)

44,200

Favourable climate for maize crop

Ideal climatefor maize cultivation

  • Maize grows well in a wide range of climatic conditions.
  • Essentially a warm weather crop.
  • It is however susceptible to frost at all stages of its growth.

Best temperature for growing maize

  • Grows under temperature ranging from 22-30℃, although it can tolerate temperature as high as 35℃.
  • Flowering and fruiting should not coincide with heavy rainfall.

Maize crop water requirements

  • Crop required water equivalent to 500-800 mm of rainfall.
  • Inadequate soil moisture during flowering and grain filling period will markedly reduce the yield.

Maize is grown in which soil (Favorable soil for maize)

Soil type

  • The ideal soils for its cultivation are the loams and sandy loams which should be fertile.
  • Seedling stage is highly susceptible to salinity and water stagnation

Soil pH

  • Required range – 5.5 to 8.0 
  • If pH is < 5.5 add Lime
  • If pH is > 8.0 add Gypsum 
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Different varities of maize and Planting Material

NK-6240
Duration
Special Characteristic
Orange Yellow semi dent with bold kernels with excellent tip
Season
Season
Yield
Content
NK-30
Duration
75 Days
Special Characteristic
Suited for tropical rainfed, high stress/drought prone conditions, Dark orange kernels
Season
Season
Yield
Content
Vivek-9
Duration
80-90 Days
Special Characteristic
Short duration variety. Improved variety, rich in lysine and tryptophan as well as pro-vitamin A.
Season
Rabi
Yield
20-28 Quintal/acre
Hybrid AH 58
Duration
78-83 Days
Special Characteristic
Early maturing, bold yellow seed, resistant to heat stress
Season
Kharif
Yield
20 Quintal/acre
Ganga Safed-2
Duration
95-100 Days
Special Characteristic
Hybrid maize, Plant are moderately resistant to downy mildew, leaf blight, rust, borers and also lodging. Gain is medium round white and flintish.
Season
Rabi
Yield
20-22 Quintal/acre

Nursery preparation for maize

Seed Rate
Varieties
6-8 kg/acre

Maize crop seed treatment

Treat the seeds with-

  • Imidacloprid – 4 ml
  • Instructions – Mix the above quantity in two liters of water for one kg of seeds. Deep Dip the seeds in solution for 10 min & then shade dry for 15 min.
  • Carbendazim – 2 gram
  • Instructions – Treated seeds are to be again treated with the Carbendazim 2 gram for 1 kg of seeds. Apply it to the seed by rubbing it on the seed surface.
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Land and bed preparation for sowing of maize crop

Land Preparation

  • Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  • Mix the following in field, and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition –FYM – 2 tons Composting Bacteria – 3 kg
  • Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth

Bed Preparation

  • Bed preparation- Prepare ridges and furrows 1.5 ft apart with the help of tractor.

Spacing and plant population for seeds of maize crop

Varities
Row to Row
1.5 ft
Plant to Plant
0.8 ft
Plant Population
36,666

Sowing of maize seeds

  • Dibble the seeds at a depth of 4 cm along the furrow (in which fertilizers are placed and cover with soil). 
  • Put 2 seeds per hole in case of varieties, as germination may be low. 

Nutrient management in maize crop (Fertilizers for maize)

  • Total requirement- 16:24:16 kg NPK/acre 
  • At sowing apply-  Urea- 35 kg, Single super phosphate  150 Kg, Murate of potash- 27 kg
  • 30 Days after sowing- Urea- 35 kg
  • 45 Days after sowing- Urea- 35 kg

Irrigation of maize crop

  • At critical growth stages- Flowering and Cob development stage
  • Flood- 1st irrigation at sowing, Second 3 days after sowing and subsequent at 1 week interval
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Intercultural operations in maize crop cultivation

Weed management in maize

3 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine (100 gm per acre) OR Pendimethalin (1 L per acre)
30 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Oxyfluorfen (100 gm per acre)
  1. Thinning: If two seeds were sown, leave only one healthy and vigorous seedling per hole and remove the other. 
  2. Gap filling: Where seedlings have not germinated, dibble presoaked seeds at the rate of 2 seeds per hole and immediately irrigate.

Disease and pests of maize: Management and Symptoms

Leaf Spot of Maize

Leaf spot disease symptoms and control
Symptoms
Tan-colored lesions within leaf margins Characteristic concentric spots that cover large areas of infected leaves and husks
Crop Input Quantity
Mancozeb
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Nematode in Maize

Nematode in maize
Symptoms
Nematode damage to corn include thin stands, uneven plant height, stunted plants, leaf yellowing, and small ears
Crop Input Quantity
Neem cake
100 kg Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix and spread over soil

Corn Borer

Corn borer pest
Symptoms
Bore holes on fruit Bore holes visible on the stem near the nodes
Crop Input Quantity
Malathion
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Rust of Maize

Rust on maize crop
Symptoms
"Brown spots with blistering on leaves small oval pustule on the underside of the leaf Earliest symptoms-small, elongated yellowish spots on both sides of leaves"
Crop Input Quantity
Chlorothalonil
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Stem Borer in Maize

Stem borer pest in maize crop
Symptoms
Bore holes on leaves, irregular chewing of leaves and presence of larvae in the shoot
Crop Input Quantity
Spinosad
100 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Downy Mildew of Maize

Maize plant with leaves showing chlorotic striping caused by Philippine downy mildew
Symptoms
Stunted and chlorotic plants and premature plant death Curling, yellowish lesions with white striped leaves
Crop Input Quantity
Fosetyl-al
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Fusarium Wilt of Maize

Symptoms
Wilting and drying of plants As the disease progresses, the younger leaves will also be affected and the plant eventually dies.
Crop Input Quantity
Carbendazim
2 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Seed Treatment

Armyworm in Maize

Armyworm symptoms and cure
Symptoms
Opens holes or gaps in the inner leaves of corn.
Crop Input Quantity
Spinetoram
80 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Maize harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
70-105 days after sowing
Harvesting stage
Maize is ready for harvesting when the stacks and leaves are somewhat green but the husk cover has dried and turned brown.

Yield per acre for maize crop

Yield
Total Harvesting Quantity
Kharif: 28-30 quintal/acre Rabi: 38-40 quintal/acre

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