Groundnut

Groundnut

Expectation

Expected Harvest

8-12 quintal/acre

Expected Duration

110-120 days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)
27,073
Expected Income (Rs)

50,000

Favourable Climate

Climate
  • Warm and moist conditions are very favorable.
  • Cool and wet climate, results in slow germination and seedling emergence, increasing the risk of seed rot and seedling diseases.
Temperature
  • The optimum temperature for most rapid germination and seedling development is about 30°C.
  • Temperatures above 35°C inhibit the growth of groundnut.
  • Low temperature at sowing delays germination and increases seed and seedling diseases.
  • During  ripening period it requires about a month of warm and dry weather.
Crop Water Requirements
  • Flowering, pegging and pod formation stages are the most critical stages when water must be available for maximum yield and quality of groundnut. 
  • Water requirement- Equivalent to 600-1500 mm of rainfall. 

Favourable Soil

Type
  • Well drained, light colored, loose sandy loam to Sandy clay loam soil.
pH
  • Require range 5.5 to 7.0
  • If pH is <5.5 add Lime
  • If pH is >7.0 add Gypsum
  • Strongly acid and alkaline soils are not suitable for growing groundnut.

Planting Material

Phule Pragati
Duration
85-90 Days
Special Characteristic
Early, Non spreading type (upati)
Season
Kharif
Yield
7-8 Quintal per acre
Vikram (TG 1)
Duration
90-100 Days
Special Characteristic
Semi spreading type
Season
Summer
Yield
8-9 Quintal per acre
Phule Unnati
Duration
115 Days
Special Characteristic
High yield
Season
Kharif, Summer
Yield
9 Quintal per acre
Konkan Gourav
Duration
105-120 Days
Special Characteristic
Semi spreading type
Season
Kharif, Rabi
Yield
7-8 Quintal per acre
Konkan Tapora
Duration
115-120 Days
Special Characteristic
Bold seeds
Season
Rabi
Yield
8.0 -8.8 Quintal per acre

Nursery Preparation

Seed Rate
Varieties
50 kg/ acre
Hybrids
40 kg/ acre

Seed Treatment

Treat the seeds with 

  • Imidacloprid – 2 ml

Instructions – Mix the above quantity in two liters of water for one kg of seeds. Deep the seeds in solution for 10 min & then shade dry for 15 min.

  • Carbendazim – 2 gram 

Instructions – Treated seeds are to be again treated with the Carbendazim 2 gram for 1 kg of seeds. Apply it on seed by rubbing it on seed surface.

Land Preparation

Land Preparation
  1. Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  2. Mix the following in field and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 

FYM – 2 tons

Composting Bacteria – 3kg

  1. Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth.
Bed Preparation
  1. Bed preparation- Prepare ridges and furrows 1 ft or 1.5 ft apart with the help of tractor.

Spacing and Plant Population

Varities
Row to Row
1.0 ft
Plant to Plant
0.3 ft
Plant Population
1,12,820
Hybrid
Row to Row
1.4 ft
Plant to Plant
0.3 ft
Plant Population (per acre)
1,04,761

Sowing

  • Pods should be shelled one week before sowing. Medium-sized seeds should be used for sowing purposes.
  • Dibble the seeds at a depth of 4-5 cm along the furrow with the help of bullock drawn seed drill or manually.
  • In manual method less seeds will require and also germination will be better.

Nutrient Management

  • Total Requirement-10:20:00 N:P:K kg/acre. 
  • At sowing apply- 22 kg Urea ,123 kg Single Super Phosphate, 80 kg Gypsum 
  • 45 Days after sowing- 80 kg Gypsum (Gypsum is added for yield improvement).

Irrigation

  • Flood- 8-10 days interval
  • Summer season- 5-6 days interval
  • First irrigation should be given 4-5 days after sowing.
  • Critical stages for irrigation-
  • Flowering stage (20-30 days)
  • Peg formation (40-45 days)
  • Pod development stage (65-70 days)

Intercultural Operations

Weed Management

3 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine (100 gram /acre) OR Pendimethalin (400 gram /acre)
45 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Imazethapyr (100 gram /acre) OR Quizalofop ethyl(100 gram /acre)
  1. Gap filling-  Where seedlings have not germinated, dibble seeds at the rate of 1 seed per hole 10-12 days after sowing and immediately irrigate.
  2. Earthing Up- Earthing up is done 40-45 days after sowing. It helps for the penetration of pegs in the soil and also facilitates for increased pod development. 

Growth Regulators

  • To improve flowering & yield spray Triacontanol @ 1.25 ml per L water on 30 and 60 days after sowing.

Pest and Disease Management

White grub pest
White grub
Symptoms
Poor crop growth, Damaged roots, Wilting of plants
Crop Input Quantity
Carbofuran
5 kg Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix and spread over soil
Seed borne diseases
Symptoms
Poor germination or in extreme cases germination ceased
Crop Input Quantity
Carbendazim
40 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix per kg of seeds
Groundnut rust
Symptoms
Orange-colored spots appear on the lower surfaces of leaflets
Crop Input Quantity
Mancozeb
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Wilt
Symptoms
The infected plants can be easily pulled out due to the rotting of the roots In the early stages of infection, reddish brown lesion appears on the stem just above the soil level
Crop Input Quantity
Metalaxyl
500 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Drench near root zone in water
Gram pod borer
Symptoms
Larvae feed on the foliage, flowers and buds
Crop Input Quantity
Indoxacarb + Novaluron
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Early leaf spot
Symptoms
Circular, dark brown spots with yellow halo on the upper leaf surface
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray
Leaf miner
Symptoms
Larvae mines into the leaves, feed on sap and form small brown blotches on the leaf
Crop Input Quantity
Lambda-cyhalothrin
200 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
110-120 Days
Maturity indices
When leaves become yellow, outer cover of pod become hard.
Harvesting method
Groundnut crop is harvested by digging pods or by pulling the plants from field.

Yield

Yield
Total Harvesting Quantity
Kharif 7- 8 quintal/acre Summer 10-12 quintal/acre

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