Chilli Farming: Ultimate guide on green chilli farming

chilli

Expectation from chilli planting

Expected harvest of chilli

30 quintal/acre

Expected duration of chilli crop

180 – 200 days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)

61,805

Expected income (Rs) from chilli farming

1,42,500

Chilli farming: favourable Climate

Ideal climate for chilli cultivation

  • Heavy rains, cloudy weather at the time of flowering and fruiting is harmful. It favours dropping of flowers and fruits.
  • High humidity leads to rotting of fruits.
  • Fruit colouring is delayed due to high light intensity.

Temperature

  • Temperature below 10°C retards plant development.
  • Temperature above 30°C at initial growth stage retards the root development.
  • If temperature goes beyond 37°C, fruit development will be adversely affected.
  • A temperature ranging from 20-25°C is ideal for chillies.

Water requirements for growing chilli plants

  • Generally grown in irrigated areas.
  • Flowering and fruit development in chilli are the most critical stages when water must be available. 
  • Water requirement – Equivalent to 800-1200 mm of rainfall
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Favorable soil for chilli farming

Soil type

  • Sandy loam soil with good water holding capacity

Soil pH

  • Required range- 6.0-7.0
  • Strongly acid and alkaline soils are not suitable for growing Chilli.
  • If pH is <6.0 add Lime
  • If pH is >7.0 add Gypsum

Chilli varities and planting material

Super Maha Jwala (Hybrid)
Duration
70-75 Days
Special Characteristic
High yielding, excellent keeping quality suitable for long distance shipping, tolerance to sucking pest
Season
Kharif & Rabi & Summer
Yield
100-120 Quintal per acre
Naval (Hybrid)
Duration
75 Days
Special Characteristic
Suits well for green house and protected net house cultivation. very good quality fruits.
Season
Kharif & Rabi & Summer
Yield
80-100 Quintal per acre

Nursery Preparation for chilli farming

Nursery preparation for green chilli plant

Method- 1

  • For transplanting in 1 acre area, 0.08 acre (3 Guntha) nursery is required.
  • Prepare six beds of size 7.5 m length X 1.2 m width X 10 cm height.
  • Sow the seeds in line at 7.5cm apart and cover with soil.
  • Water the nursery beds daily twice till germination and once after germination.
  • Ten days before transplanting reduce the quantity of water application to the nursery beds to harden the seedlings.
  • After 3 days of seed germination, drench the seedbed with Ridomil @ 20 gram. in 10 lit of water, to protect the seedlings from damping-off disease.
  • Spray 19:19:19 @ 5 gram + Thiamethoxam @ 0.25 gram per lit water at 25 days after sowing.

Method- 2

  • Fill the protrays with Cocopeat @ 1.2 kg Cocopeat per tray. 
  • Sow the treated seeds in protrays @ 1 seed per cell.
  • Cover the seed with cocopeat and keep the trays one above the other and cover with a polythene sheet till germination starts (5 Days).
  • After 6 days, place the protrays with germinated seeds individually on the raised beds inside a shade net.
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Nursery Duration

  • Duration- 35 days 
  • Plants are ready for transplanting when leaves become dark green in color and stem become thick.
Seed rate of chilli
Varieties
380- 400 g seeds for transplanting 1 acre area
Hybrids
100-120 g seeds for transplanting 1 acre area

Chilli seed treatment

Treat the seeds with 

  • Imidacloprid – 4 ml

Instructions – Mix the above quantity in two liters of water for one kg of seeds. Deep the seeds in solution for 10 min & then shade dry for 15 min.

  • Carbendazim – 2 gram 

Instructions – Treated seeds are to be again treated with the Carbendazim 2 gram for 1 kg of seeds. Apply it on seed by rubbing it on seed surface.

Chilli farming land preparation

Land Preparation for planting green chilli seedlings

  1. Ploughing method – Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  2. Mix the following in field, and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 
    1. FYM – 2 tons
    2. Composting Bacteria – 3kg
  3. Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth

Bed Preparation

  • Bed preparationPrepare ridges and furrows 75 cm or 60 cm apart with the help of tractor.

Plastic mulching for chilli crop

  • For Drip irrigation – Plastic mulching is required.
  • For Flood irrigation – Plastic mulching is not required.
 

Spacing and Plant Population

Varities
Row to Row
1.9 ft
Plant to Plant
1.9 ft
Plant Population
11,111
Hybrid
Row to Row
2.4 ft
Plant to Plant
1.9 ft
Plant Population
8888

Root Dip Treatment for chilli planting

  • Take 20 liter water in a flat container.
  • Mix 40 gram Carbendazim + 40 ml Imidacloprid.
  • Dip the roots in solution for 5 minutes before transplanting.
  • For plants in pro trays – Dip the pro trays in container for 5 min. 

Chilli seedling transplanting

  • Transplant the seedlings on the ridges 60 cm apart. 

Chilli farming nutrient management
(Fertilizing Chilli plants)

   Total requirement- 40:20:20 kg N:P:K per acre

  • At sowing apply (per acre)- 
  • Urea – 44 kg

  • Single Super Phosphate- 122 kg

  • Muriate of Potash– 34 kg
  • 30 Days after transplanting – 22 kg Urea
  • 45 Days after transplanting – 22 kg Urea
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Irrigation of chilli farm

  • Drip – On alternate day
  • Flood – Once in a week (based on rainfall)
  • Summer season- 5-6 days interval
  • After every harvesting of chilli one irrigation should be provided

Intercultural operations in chili farming

Weed management of chilli crop

3 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine 50WP (100 gram per acre) OR Pendimethalin (400 ml per acre)
Herbicide quantity
100 gram per acre 400 ml per acre
30 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Oxyfluorfen (400 ml per acre)
Herbicide quantity
400 ml per acre

Growth regulators for chilli plant

  • To improve flowering spray Triacontanol @ 1.25 ml per lit water on 20, 40, 60 days after transplanting. 
  • To reduce flower drop and increase fruit setting spray Naphthalic acetic acid 2 ml per liter water on 60 and 90 days after transplanting.

Chilli diseases and pests: Symptoms and Management

Damping off in chilli

Damping off disease in chilli plant
Symptoms
The Infected Part of seedling looks much thinner. Seedling qyuickly withers and dries
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
250.0 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Drench Near root zone in water

Sucking pests

Chilli thrips, aphids and whiteflies

thrips and aphids in chilli
Symptoms
Folding of leaves Silvery patches on leaves Upward curling of leaves Small insects aggregated on leaves, stem
Crop Input Quantity
Thiamethoxam
100 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Powdery Mildew of chilli

powdery mildew disease of chilli plant
Symptoms
White powdery growth on leaves and stem
Crop Input Quantity
Wettable sulphur
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Fusarium Wilt of Chilli

fusarium wilt disease in chilli farming
Symptoms
Iinitial slight yellowing of the foliage and wilting of the upper leaves then wilting of the plant and upward and inward rolling of the leaves
Crop Input Quantity
Metalaxyl + Mancozeb
200 gram Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and apply via drip

Chilli Fruit Borer

Fruit borer of chilli
Symptoms
Bore holes on fruit
Crop Input Quantity
Thiamethoxam + Lambda cyhalothrin
100 ml Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Fruit rot of chilli

fruit rot in chilli farming
Symptoms
Brown-black spots on the fruits Rotting and drying of fruit
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
200 gm Per Acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray

Chilli Harvesting

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
70 to 150 days
Number of Harvests
8 to 10
Harvesting Intervals
10 Days

Chilli yield per acre

Yield
Each Harvesting Quantity
5 -8 quintal/acre
Total Harvesting Quantity
40 - 50 quintal/acre

3 thoughts on “Chilli Farming: Ultimate guide on green chilli farming

  1. Pingback: Green Chilli - BharatAgri

  2. T V SUBBA RAO Reply

    Very detailed explanation.
    Some contradicting calculations:
    1. yield in the first page was shown as 30 Q/A whereas in the last page it is shown as 40-50 Q/Acre, which is a big difference.
    2. Helpful if expenditure details are given, which the farmer can compare for his field
    3. Income is shown as 1,42,000 per acre for 30 Q yeild, which means price/kg come to Rs.47.33, which never happened in the field during the last two years.

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