Ginger Farming: Complete guide on growing ginger

How to do ginger farming

Ginger Farming

Expectation from ginger farming

Expected ginger production per acre

60-80 Quintal/acre

Expected duration of ginger crop

250-260 Days after sowing

Expected Expenditure (Rs)

60,000

Expected Income (Rs)

2,10,000

Favorable climate for ginger cultivation

Ideal climate for growing ginger

  • Ginger is grown in warm and humid climate.
  • Cool and dry climate is best during rhizome development.

Ideal temperature for ginger crop

  • Optimum Temperature for ginger is 19-28°C.

Ginger crop water requirements

  • Grows well in areas with annual rainfall between 1000 to 1200 mm.

Favorable soil for ginger farming

Soil type

  • Well drained Sandy to Clay loam soils, rich in humus is ideal for ginger.
  • Avoid water logging condition.

Soil pH

  • Required range – 6.0- 6.5
  • Crop does not grow well in alkaline soil. 
  • If pH is < 6.0 add Lime
  • If pH is > 6.5 add Gypsum
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Ginger varieties and planting material

IISR-Varada
Duration
200 Days
Special Characteristic
A good quality, high yielding variety. Dry ginger less prone to storage insect damage.
Yield (Fresh rhizomes) (Quintal/ acre)
88 Quintal/acre
IISR-Mahima
Duration
200 Days
Special Characteristic
Bold rhizomes with fibre content. Resistant to root knot nematode.
Yield (Fresh rhizomes) (Quintal/ acre)
89 Quintal/acre
IISR-Rejatha
Duration
200 Days
Special Characteristic
Round and bold rhizomes with three layered compact clumps.
Yield (Fresh rhizomes) (Quintal/ acre)
89 Quintal/acre

Ginger seed rate

Seed Rate
Varieties
600-700 kg/acre
  • For sowing, seed rhizomes are used. 
  • Carefully preserved seed rhizomes are cut into small pieces of 2.5-5.0 cm length weighing 20-25 g each having one or two good buds.

Seed treatment in ginger farming

  • Treat the seeds with Mancozeb @ 3 ml + Dimethoate @ 2 ml for one L of water.
  • Take 200 L water in big container for 800 kg seeds. 
  • Dip the seeds in this solution for at least 15-20  min.
  • After treatment, dry rhizomes in shade for 3-4 hours.

Land preparation for growing ginger

Land Preparation

  • Ploughing method- Plough the land 1 or 2 times based on soil type.
  • Mix the following in field, and keep it in open air for 10 days for proper decomposition – 

                FYM- 4 tons

               Composting Bacteria- 3 kg

  • Spread the above mixture over soil and run rotavator to the entire field making the soil as a fine tilth.

Bed Preparation

  • Prepare raised beds of 1 meter width, 30 cm height with spacing of 50 cm between beds.
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Spacing and plant population in ginger farming

Varities
Row to Row
0.8 ft
Plant to Plant
0.6 ft
Plant Population
91,666

Sowing: Ginger sowing time and sowing method

  • Sowing time:

                First week of May (For Rainfed areas)

               Second week of February to March (For Irrigated areas)

  • Sowing Method:

              Prepare small pits on flat beds at 1 ft distance and place seed rhizomes in pits at depth 4-5 cm. Then cover with                  soil.

Fertilizer for ginger and nutrient management in ginger farming

  • 48:30:30 N:P:K kg  per acre. 
  • At sowing apply- 

                Single Super Phosphate- 185 kg 

                Muriate of Potash- 50 kg

  • 45 days after sowing – 

               Urea- 35 kg

  • 75 days after sowing –

              Urea- 35 kg

  • 105 days after sowing – 

              Urea- 35 kg

Irrigation of ginger crop

  • The critical stages for irrigation are-
  • During germination
  • Rhizome initiation (90 Days after planting)
  • Rhizome development stages (135 Days after planting).
  • Flood – At 7 to 10 days interval (based on rainfall)
  • Drip – Alternate day (based on rainfall)

Intercultural operations in ginger crop

Weed management in ginger farming

3 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Atrazine 50 WP
Herbicide quantity
200 gm per acre
30 Days after transplanting
Method
Spray
Herbicide Name
Oxyflurofen
Herbicide quantity
100 gm per acre
  • Gap filling- 

               After 20 days put seeds in gaps where germination is not done.

  • Mulching

               The crop is to be mulched immediately after planting with green leaves @ 4.5 t/acre. Again repeat the mulching                     twice, at 50 and 100 days after planting.

  • Earthing up

               First earthing up operation is carried at 45 days after planting and second after 90 days.

 

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Diseases and pests of ginger: Symptoms and Management

Leaf roller of ginger

leaf roller pest in turmeric
Symptoms
Folding of leaves. Presence of larvae inside the folded leaves.
Crop Input Quantity
Lambda-cyhalothrin
200 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Rhizome Scale

Rhizome scale in ginger farming
Symptoms
Rhizome become shrivelled and desiccated
Crop Input Quantity
Dimethoate
250.0 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Shoot Borer

Ginger shoot borer
Symptoms
Bore-hole on the Pseudo-stem with exuding frass. Withering of central shoot.
Crop Input Quantity
Neem oil
600.0 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Seed borne diseases

seed borne diseases of ginger
Symptoms
Poor crop growth, Damaged roots, Wilting of plants
Crop Input Quantity
Carbendazim + Imidacloprid
400 grams per acre + 400 ml per acre
Crop Input usage
Seed Treatment

White Grub

White grub pest
Symptoms
Plant withers and patchy crop growth. Plants turn pale, leaves and branches drop down
Crop Input Quantity
Carbofuran
5.0 kg per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix and spread over soil.

Leaf spot of ginger

leaf spot disease in ginger farming
Symptoms
Small water soaked, dark, irregular spots on leaves resulting in premature defoliation, The pathogen also affects stem, branches.
Crop Input Quantity
Copper oxychloride
500.0 gram per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and spray.

Bacterial Wilt

Symptoms
Water soaked spots appear at the collar region. Drooping and curling of leaf margins of the lower leaves.
Crop Input Quantity
Streptocyclin
0.5 kg of seeds
Crop Input usage
Mix per kg of seeds

Rhizome rot of ginger

rhizome rot disease
Symptoms
Decay of rhizomes. Plants become weak, can be easily pulled out and show the damage of roots
Crop Input Quantity
Pseudomonas fluoescence + Trichoderma viride
10 kg per acre + 10 kg per acre
Crop Input usage
Mix in water and apply via drip.

Ginger harvesting: Right time and method

Harvesting Duration
Harvesting Duration
250-260 Days. (Depending on variety) days
  • 20 days before harvesting irrigation should be stopped.
  • Right time for harvesting of ginger is when leaves get yellow and dry out completely. 
  • Remove rhizomes by digging and after harvesting clean rhizomes by thoroughly washing in water for 2 to 3 times. 
  • Then dry them in shades for 2-3 days.

Ginger yield per acre

Yield
Total Harvesting Quantity
60-80 Quintal per acre

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